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 البحث نجليزي عن إنفلونزا الطيور (plue الطيور) ، (طاعون الطيور =Search for Avian influenza (bird plue),(The plague of birds)

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عدد المساهمات : 123
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/04/2010
الموقع : http://www.tnb.66ghz.com/vb

مُساهمةموضوع: البحث نجليزي عن إنفلونزا الطيور (plue الطيور) ، (طاعون الطيور =Search for Avian influenza (bird plue),(The plague of birds)   الأربعاء أكتوبر 20, 2010 4:24 am

Avian influenza (bird plue),(The plague of birds)

Presented by:
Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae under the rank of the rank of Mononegavirales Myxoviruses
Family Orthomyxoviridae contains four genera, including three races of the influenza virus are:
1 - A influenza virus that affects birds and is transmitted to pigs, horses and some other species of animals and some types of rodents also affect some Aatarath rights and move the injured to the proper (H1N1, H3N2, H2N2)
2 - B, and influenza virus in humans only and does not cause medical problems only in school-aged children (5-14 years old) and older and causes respiratory symptoms only.
3 - C influenza virus strains and a weaker humans, pigs, and the symptoms go unnoticed (minor symptoms can not differentiate between them and the symptoms of colds, minor) so little Concern study as well as information available to them.

Description of the virus
Characterized influenza virus multi-forms and change (highlypieomorphic) is either a spherical or oval with a diameter of 80-120 nm, while other forms of it up to (200 nm) or filamentous long length of up to (2000 nm) and a diameter of up to (80-120 nm), and the different strains of the virus in their tendency to form linear forms.
A - outer shell of the virus envelope is composed of fatty highlights from the image protrusions (spines) of the Alglicobrotin of two types:
1 - (HA) haemagglutinin and length of 135 A.
2 - (NA) neuraminidase and length of 60 A.
B - inner surface of the envelope protein of the virus.
Search the thread (piece) of Alraibusom (RNA) carries a single protein code
C - cut the genome and the eight pieces or a string of RNA that carry the genetic code of the virus are in the heart of the virus.* Each thread (piece) of the fees (RNA) carrying code one protein.
* The three major segments (p1, p2, p3) is the internal proteins of the virus and specializes in the process of polymerization (ie converting a string to RNA negative mRNA) in a cell of the family.
* Alraibusom cut three medium-sized, two of them from Itrakban Alglicobrotin carrying the blades HA & NA, second and third bearing code Alnyukliobrotin NP is part of the Alnyukliukabsid.
* Object-seventh, the smallest pieces bear the code M protein, one of the major components of the virus for the cover (envelope)
* Depending on the type Alnyukliobrotin NP and M protein has been divided into three influenza virus types are A, B, C
* Depending on the type of both Alonteginan HA & NA (Alonteginan two major components in the cover of the virus) strain of the virus was determined by their partition numbers (N2 ... H1, H2 .... & NA).
* HA antigen contains about 25% of the protein the virus is a virus-cell adhesion and penetration of host cell membrane and then its entry of the virus within the cell.
* H antigen is divided to 16 under the type (16 subtypes) is (H1, H2, ... H16).
* N is divided into antigenic type to a 9-under (9 subtypes) is (N1, N2, ... N9)
* Antibodies produced by the host against the virus antigen H can be equally efficient with the virus, which contains in its cover if attacked host, therefore, of great importance in the production of influenza vaccines.
* Antibodies produced by the host against the virus N antigen have little effect in slowing or preventing the release of the virus from the host cell (you need very high concentrations of antibodies)
* Spanish influenza H1N1 and H2N2 Asian flu and Hong Kong H3N3.

Mutation of the virus:
Characterized influenza virus ability of big mutation (mutation) in short periods of time and its ability to configure the strains of a new, allowing him to cause infection in the same assembly infected Balaatarp earlier without objection from the immune system and lead to the emergence of strains of a new can finish easily the families were not infected by the mutation and this is what scientists are currently running in fear of the mutated strain of H5N1 to the current striking new strain that could pass easily between humans, triggering a global pandemic such as pandemics that occurred during the last century and killed millions of people.

Mutation of two types:
The first is called - (Antigenic drift)
A mutation of slow onset is through accumulation of point mutations in the gene result in a change of amino acids in a protein the virus, which leads to a change order or complete rupture of Alraibusom and result in a change in the antigen (H1 changed to H2 or N1 to N2 (and thus the virus can escape from the immune system and destroy the host again with the same strain and often mutation occurs in one of the only Alontejinin (H only or N only) and rarely occurs in both.

The second is called (antigenic shift)
A mutation to occur and is fast changing the order of amino acid sequence of the virus also occurs in cells infected with two types of influenza has been observed that the virus occurs in one out of every 10 thousand HIV

Multiplication of the virus:
Facilitate the thorns that contain HA virus to enter the host cell (human - animal - birds Baltsagaha set Almiukubrutin Terminal (NANA = sialic acid ((N-acetyl neuraminic) in the host cell and then link to ingest into the host cell by a currency called endocytosis until it reaches the end Andusumaat to the host cell
To enter the host cell must be divided into two HA protein by enzymes called proteases Onziman Proteolysis is naturally present in secretions of the cells lining the false and the trachea and lungs and there is no secretion from the cells in any other part of the body and this explains that influenza respiratory disease only
But he found too severe strains used another enzyme called (plasmine) to enter the cell, which resides in the secretion of the cells in all tissues of the body as in the case of highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 and other strains of fierce
* Virus strains were classified in terms of intensity, in three groups according to WHO & OIE organizations are:
1. Strain of highly pathogenic HPAI: It is caused by death of a number from 16 to 8 chicks aged 4-8 weeks after intravenous injection solution extract of the virus concentration 1 / 10 over a period of 10 days has been found to contain one of the Alantegnin H5 or H7, and some isolates that contain the H10 antigen, including H10N5 & H10N4.
Note: This strain is included in the list A of the Office International des Epizooties in Paris, which prohibits the importation of birds from countries Alambup them.
2 - strain of medium virulence MPAI: the MOST widespread and caused death of a number 1-5 chicks of the total 8 chicks aged 4-8 weeks after intravenous injection solution extract of the virus concentration 1 / 10 over a period of 10 days, provided it does not contain any of the Alantejinin H5 or H7, and some of these strains used in the work of the influenza vaccine
2 - low pathogenic strains LPAI: They do not cause the appearance of symptoms can be observed.
Influenza A (avian influenza) in humans

Presented by:
* Scientists because the first record of infection of human influenza illness in general to the year 155 AD, the date of the first pandemic in 1580 to spread from one continent where Europe to Asia and Africa (Cunha 2004)
* Join the second infection of human influenza illness in general was in the 18 century, where epidemics have occurred years (1729 to 1730 - 1732-1733.1781 - 1782)
* Join third human bird flu infection in general was in the 19 century, where epidemics have occurred three years (1830 to 1831.1833 - 1834.1889-1890 "Russian Flu)
* So far do not know exactly when she moved strains of influenza A virus from birds to humans for the first time.
* Scientists confirm now that the years 1918-1919 influenza pandemic that struck more than 200 million people and killed more than 50-100 million people (Barry 2004) has moved from birds to humans (scientists expect if a pandemic occurs from the current H5N1 strain the incidence and mortality ranging from 175 to 350 million people) (ASTHO 2004).
* Epidemic appears sharply in the fast-spreading human populations (nurseries, schools, universities, hospitals, exhibitions, etc. ...) where the disease occurs during the short period of time of 1-3 weeks and continue to appear for 3-4 weeks where the disease is usually 20-50 % of the risk of infection.
* Symptoms of infection are more severe and faster prevalent among children (aged 5-14 years) and elderly (over 60-65 years), patients waistcoat or chronic diseases.
* Emerged influenza infection is endemic during the last century in three large epidemics, namely:
1. Spanish influenza H1N1 between 1918 and 1919 that affected more than 200 million people and killed more than 50-100 million people (Barry 2004) in all parts of the world.
2. Asian H2N2 influenza between 1957 and 1958 (that killed nearly a million people).
3. Hong Kong H3N2 avian influenza between 1968 and 1969 (that killed nearly a million people).
• In 1997, he was the cause of infection in humans in Hong Kong is the transmission of influenza strain (H5N1) from birds to humans, causing injury and death of 6 members from among the 18 people injured in this strain.
• In 1999, the infection in humans because of strain (H9N2) in Hong Kong.
• In March 2003 the infection in humans because of strain (H7N7) in the Netherlands and caused the death of a veterinarian after a visit to a poultry farm infected with bird flu.
* Since December 2003 I moved strain of avian influenza (H5N1) to humans in Southeast Asia and killed at least 92 people in Vietnam, Thailand and some other countries, continues to be prevalent in many countries (Thailand - Cambodia - Vietnam - Indonesia - China - Korea - Japan - Malaysia - Iraq - France - Germany - Italy - Iran - Belgium - Cyprus - India - Slovenia - Hungary) n The latest of these countries are (Kazakhstan - Turkey - Greece - Hungary - Croatia - Egypt) so far and are less severe.
• In 2005 the disease has spread in the countries of North Asia and some European countries, including (Russia - Azerbaijan - Turkey - Romania - Greece - United Kingdom)
* States have become African and European continents susceptible to transmission of avian influenza to it through migratory birds.

Methods of infection in humans:
1. Mixing with sick birds.
2. Eating contaminated food and water Bzark and secretions of infected birds.
3. Inhalation of polluted air Bzark and secretions of infected birds

Symptoms of influenza in humans:
1. Continuous fever.
2. Jerk
3. Rhinitis and the descent of the nasal secretions and sneeze
4. Dry cough and inflammation of the Az-Zour
5. Pain in the chest muscles and severe fatigue
6. Shortness of breath
7. Severe pneumonia
8. Gastrointestinal symptoms often appear in children only
9. Death
Image severe infection occurs in persons in contact with the infected birds and sponsors and circulation of the massacres and contacts or at Zarkha secretions and faeces, and the symptoms continue for several days
Methods of prevention and the prevention of transmission of infection:
1. Good for washing hands with soap and water at intervals, preferably the use of disinfectants in the laundry.
2. Wear protective clothing before exposure to birds or their secretions and Zarkha
3. The use of antiseptic mouth rinses and throat
4. Vitamin C
5. Immunization and the use of antivirals such as amantadine (Amantadine) and rimantadine (Rimantadine) and Rilaniza (Relanza) and Tamiflu (Tamiflue)

Treatment:
1. Comfort in bed.
2. Drink plenty of fluids
3. Eating painkillers such as paracetamol Shirring
4. Address, such as aspirin, antipyrine
5. And the use of antivirals such as amantadine (Amantadine) and rimantadine (Rimantadine) and Rilaniza (Relanza) and Tamiflu (Tamiflue)
6. Inhalation drug (Zanamivir) leads to the short duration of symptoms and reduce the severity.



Influenza A in swine

* Discovered the injury for the first time in pigs in 1918 was not to isolate and diagnose strain (H1N1) that caused the emergence of this infection only in 1930 in the United States of America.
* Serological studies confirmed that was in 1988 and 1989 that this strain (H1N1) is still prevalent in pigs in northern and central United States of America (up to 51%)
* Tested positive for viral isolation and serological presence of the same strain in pigs in many countries of the world, including (France - Japan - England - Bulgaria - Egypt - Thailand - Cambodia).
* Also proved her Baatarp Hong Kong (H3N2) and can be transmitted to the contacts.
• In 1992 was isolated bird flu strain H1N7 from pigs in England, and strain study found that 6 pieces of Alraibusom (RNA) are quite similar to those of human influenza HA antigen, while the Apostle and Alraibusom MRNA was very similar to those of equine influenza.
* Pigs play an important role in the dissemination of influenza viruses because it is the only animal that can be infected with human influenza virus Baatarti and chicken (Kito et al 1994 & Ito et al 1996)
* Focus the seriousness of swine flu in the likeness of the immune system with its counterpart in humans, which gives the virus an opportunity to adapt it, which facilitates the spread of the epidemic from pigs to humans.
* Scientists fear the current transmission of the current strain of H5N1 to wild pigs and mixed with other Balaatarat Pigs play a role because the mixing bowl of different strains and then show the existence of new highly pathogenic strain transmitted from pigs to humans easily.
1. China confirmed 23/08/2004 isolate this strain from a pig in 2002 from samples collected from pigs in 2001 from Fujian Province in southwestern China.
2. In 2003 were collected 1936 from the number of pigs from the same province and 13 other provinces have been isolated strain of a sample of one of the samples taken from pigs from the same province.
3. In 2004 were collected 1.1 million sample 4447 sample of pigs from 10 states, including the province of Fujian has not isolate this strain from pigs.
4. This was confirmed by Chinese scientists that the strain isolated from swine very similar to the H5N1 strain that has been isolated from ducks in China recently and there is no difference between them.


Influenza A in horses

* Been described in horses infected bird flu in the scientific literature since the 17 century, corresponding to its counterparts in humans have not been isolated equine influenza virus only in the 1956.
* Spread of infection in many countries of the world and is of interest to horse breeders, particularly race horses.
* Was isolated influenza virus for the first time the horses in Czechoslovakia in 1956 strain H7N7, known as Equi1 was isolated after in 1956 of horses in many European countries and America, and in 1963 was isolated strain H3N8, known as Equi2 horses in Miami, United States of America followed by isolation of horses in many European countries and North America.
* Appeared mutated strain of the H3N8 strain was isolated from horses in Suffolk, England in 1989 and spread to Asia, where it caused injury to about 80%, and the deaths of nearly 20% of horses in northern China and found that antigens of this strain (A/eq/Jilin/89) as of the strain circulating in ducks on the strain circulating in horses.

Prevention:
Immunization Balaatartin H7N7 & H3N8 together (not every 3 months in all foals 6 months in horses vaccinated mothers publican additional dose before birth to 4-6 weeks) and proper health care, this is vaccination of horses periodically starting in 1981.


Influenza A in the other animals

Rodents play a role in transmission, especially the wedding, and that the discovery of transition strain of H5N1 to domestic cats (the number of 3 cats in the house of Our Lady of THB) and the death of these cats as a result of HIV infection and fauna of the Leopard, one of the largest species of cats are Asian does not exist only in forests in southern East Asia, China and India.


Influenza A in birds

* Birds are infected with all known strains of influenza A have been isolated six species of ten antigen H and nine N types of antigen of influenza
* More sources to isolate strains of virus are migratory waterfowl and wild particularly ducks, followed by ornamental birds, particularly parrots and birds (especially those coming from Southeast Asia, India and Central and South America) and pet birds in the regions of Hong Kong, China (was isolated over 46 strains of different virus Most of the ducks)
* Less sources of virus isolation was one of the domestic birds (chickens, ducks and turkeys).

Ibedemiologip disease and ways to spread

The birds are the natural stores of the virus for many reasons, including:
1. Wild birds and water birds, beaches and migratory birds (especially ducks) is characterized by its susceptibility to infection by more than strain of the virus at the same time there is no evidence of serological for antibodies that could be identified and the diagnosis of influenza viruses, and so can be detected infection tests are performed isolation of viral to isolate the virus from these birds test or rt-PCR (a test not available and difficult procedure and you need to material costs and high-tech).
2. These birds excrete the virus in glaucoma, secretions other for a long time (been isolated the virus from the waters of Lake Inn by wild ducks), which can transfer the virus over large distances (from one continent to another) and that the combination of these birds backyard birds that are raised in backyard plays a major role in the dissemination of infection in other domestic birds.
3. Open markets, where they accumulate live birds from places, farms and multiple different types of display, sale and remain for long periods - these roses related birds are of flu, especially after exposure to enormous stress during transport and handling make it a favorable opportunity for the virus to attack these birds and bird reproduction and growth within the cells and eventually mutate into strains different also gives him the opportunity to return to the farms through the return of these birds from the market, as well as through the means of transport (cars - cages - utensils and tools) as well as rights.
4. Of the distinguishing characteristics of this virus that is excreted in respiratory secretions and Blue (characterized by the virus in its ability to multiply in the digestive tract of birds, one of the characteristics of bird flu is not found the property in human influenza or other animals and excreted in high concentrations in blue) and cold regions of the globe (where he remains capable of causing infection in glaucoma for up to 30 days at a temperature of 4 ˚ m for a period of two days at a temperature of 20 ˚ m) this is the emergence of the disease seasonal in some cases.
5. Virus is transmitted from one farm to another, direct contact and indirect and through the movement of birds and Entries by dust and clothing and all the tools used in the farms and means of transport.
6. The virus has been isolated from sperm and eggs in the turkey, but there is no scientific evidence confirms move vertically through the egg.

Routes of infection in birds:
1. Contact with infected birds
2. Eating contaminated food and water Bzark and secretions of infected birds
3. Inhalation of polluted air Bzark and secretions of infected birds

Symptoms:
Stop the emergence and severity of symptoms of influenza virus on many factors, including:
1. Type strain of the virus (fierce - medium intensity - low intensity)
2. The type of birds infected
3. Health status and immunity of the herd
4. Breeding systems
5. Environmental conditions surrounding the herd
6. The presence of secondary infection
7. Age of the infected herd

Incubation period:
(Is the period between the entry of the virus and onset of the first presentation of the injury), ranging from 3-7 days and less in the event of injury Balaatarp fierce

The symptoms of bird flu virus in several photographs, including:
Minor symptoms:
Evidenced by the presence of the disease through:
1. The presence of antibodies periodic serological tests
2. A slight decrease in feed intake and loss of appetite, slight
3. Minor respiratory symptoms (discharge water from the nose - cough - the speed of breathing)
4. Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea)

Severe symptoms:
1. Sudden death without any symptoms of pre-
2. High body temperature
3. Loss of mobility and inability to stand
4. Loss of appetite and severe shortage of feed consumption
5. A sharp drop in egg production and egg production flabby crust or without crust or distorted
6. Edema (water swelling) in the head and eyelids, custom Aldalitin and around the claws.
7. Congestion and the blue color custom Aldalitin and legs, and body parts free of feathers
8. Nasal secretions of water and mucus, cough and difficulty in breathing, sinusitis and rattle sound
9. Gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea)
10. Neurological symptoms (idle - the inability to walk or stand - ruffled feathers and roughness)
11. Symptoms in ducks and turkeys are similar to those of the poultry, but less evident than unity in the chicken
* Percentages of injury to 100% within 2-10 days of onset of symptoms.
* Percentages of deaths to 100% in case of injury Balaatarp too severe HPAI during 2-10 days.

Anatomical lesions:
1. Congestion conjunctivitis eye is accompanied in some cases the presence of patches Tnkerzip them.
2. Edema under the skin zones for head and neck
3. Accumulation of large amounts of tracheal mucus may be present Onzvp similar to those in disease inflammation of the larynx, trachea, gastric
4. Onzvp muscle
5. Splanchnic congestion in
6. Hemorrhagic spots the size of a pinhead on the outer surface of the sternum
7. Hemorrhagic spots on the abdominal fat (appears as if it had been sprayed with red dye)
8. Onzvp on the mucous membrane lining of the stomach, especially when they relate to Proventriculus Balqansp (similar to the patches of haemorrhagic disease, Newcastle disease and other diseases).
9. Renal congestion and the filling of the ureter and kidney channels urinary uric acid salts sometimes
10. Peritoneal cavity filled Besvar white eggs result of the explosion, resulting in an acute inflammation of air bags and acute peritonitis (in birds, which remain alive for 7-10 days of the start of infection)
11. Ovarian atrophy and there may be some haemorrhagic spots and stains on the surface Altnkerzip
12. Anatomical lesions in ducks and turkeys, and less evident than in poultry
13. Anatomical lesions of the flu can not be easily distinguishable from its counterpart in the Newcastle disease, which gives the opportunity for influenza virus to spread before reaching the exact diagnosis of the disease.

Diagnosis:
Field diagnosis (suspected):
Is based on:
1. Medical history in terms of a disease in an area close or the presence of migratory birds or wild ducks near the farm or the presence of a lake ... Etc..
2. Symptoms of the phenomenon on the herd and in particular sudden death and the sharp drop in egg production ... Etc
3. Anatomical lesions

Laboratory diagnosis:
Is to isolate the virus strain causing the disease and determine the severity of ferocity.

Samples must be sent to the lab are:
1. Swabs of the trachea and anal swabs
2. Internal organs (trachea - lungs - the spleen - the compound - the brain)
3. Blood samples for testing Sero to indicate the presence of antibodies in the serum of the disease.
And taking into account that the samples are collected from a large number of birds that show symptoms and birds mixing with them and sent to the lab saved on ice.

Differential diagnosis:
Intended to distinguish between avian flu and similar diseases, such as:
1. Intestinal fierce strain of Newcastle disease VVND
2. The acute phase of disease, fowl cholera
3. Some respiratory diseases such as acute in the image LT & E Coli

Note:
Influenza viruses were isolated from the Ratites for the first time in 1991
* Strains were isolated from the ostrich, Alaembo and other bird species which do not fly (H3N2, H4N2, H4N6, H5N2, H5N9, H7N1, H7N2, H9N2, H10N7)
Search the strains of influenza virus that was isolated from birds (which do not fly, such as ostriches) strains of medium intensity MPAI
* Infection in the birds do not fly the symptoms do not occur Nfoqa simple but her role in the transfer of infection to poultry and other birds
* South Africa announced that the bird flu hit the wild ostriches for the first time in the month of August 2004 and it caused the death or culling of more than 13,000 ostrich in 5 of the largest ostrich farms in the world during that month were identified as H5 strain
* The virus has been isolated from many types of wild birds in addition to the foregoing, including some types of hawks and other birds of prey

Methods of prevention and elimination of the disease:
For the prevention of infection with avian influenza should know that:
1. The virus is sensitive to most detergents and disinfectants traded markets
2. The virus is sensitive to temperature and drought
3. Virus requires the presence of organic materials damp (was removed alive from the wet blue, 105 days)
So should:
1. Hygienic disposal of infected poultry and Entries by burning or deep burial in a pit of quicklime and covers a layer of quicklime in the hole before backfilling
2. Raise the temperature of amber over in 1930 for several days, then wash and cleanse well is not used for breeding again until after 3 months of the end of the disease

For the prevention of the disease are the following procedures:
First, prevention Bio:
1. On the farm:
To prevent the entry of the virus to the farm taking into account the following:
* Continue to farm closed on what is in it from home and abroad (Farm closed less vulnerable to the disease has recently been in some European countries to prevent breeding birds outside the barns closed - in courtyards or open spaces - not to be subject to mixing with wild birds or migratory directly or pollution caused by these birds to water or food)
* Farm workers to wear special clothing, blankets and Bao inside
Prevent visitors from approaching or entering the farm scale
• Prevent the entry of personnel management and supervisors of any other farms
* Change of clothes and clean the various parts of the body after the care of herds and before leaving the farm
* Visitors who can not be denied entry, such as the owner and the truck drivers transport of fodder and fuel ... Etc. must before entering the farm to wear protective clothing and headgear Pot and a good cleansing
* Cars and other means of transportation must be disinfected before entering the farm and when you exit
* Pots and tools used in the farm tools and transport must be kept clean and are disinfected before use and after
* Hygienic disposal of sick and dead birds
* Individuals who are dealing with wild birds and pet birds should be prevented from entering within the scope of the farm prior to change clothes and wash and clean thoroughly before entering into the scope of the farm
Must set warning signs to prevent entry of vehicles in the scope of the farm

2. Procedures for the sale and circulation of influenza:
* The use of plastic cages for easy laundered and disinfected
Maintaining the cleanliness of the scales and floor sales area of pollution glaucoma and feathers and other residues and cleaned and disinfected after the end of the sale
* Cleaning and disinfection of all pots and cages and transport of poultry prior to entering into the scope of the farm again
Prevent re-birds came out of the sale have not been sold to the farm again

Surveillance and control of the disease:

1. Serological examination routine periodic monitoring the presence of antibodies in the blood and eggs on farms which may be suspected by the presence of infection (early detection of disease - a preventive measure)
2. The total isolation of herds infected until they are disposed of health, including necessary action to prevent the spread of infection (the responsibility of a breeder in the first place the need for rapid reporting of infection satisfactory ranch so that the Veterinary speed to take the necessary measures to control the disease and prevent spread of the farms nearby, close to the farm affected)
3. Re-examine the education status quo and not a new education in the same ward only after completely sure of the absence of any viral activity of the farm and surrounding areas.
4. Follow-up to wild birds and migratory birds and testing Serological routine to monitor the presence of antibodies.

Immunization

Although he faces many objections, including:
1. Immunization does not prevent infection Balaatarat other strains of the virus or high pathogenic HPAI
2. Medium-intensity field strains MPAI hit if the herd could grow unnoticed Serological tests may even mutate into new strains of highly pathogenic HPAI
3. Immunization does not prevent the secretion of the virus in respiratory secretions or blue of the bird
4. Immunization can not be of the early detection Balaatarat field where you can not distinguish between antibodies resulting from immunization and antibodies resulting from infection Balaatarp field Serological tests
5. Vaccinated herds may contribute to the dissemination of infection among non-vaccinated herds (vulnerability to HIV infection less in vaccinated herds and symptoms is less clear, especially in the event of injury Balaatarp field medium intensity MPAI

However, the immunization Balaatarat isolated from herds infected or carriers of many advantages, including:
1. Prevents or greatly reduces the secretion of the virus (immunized chickens stopped Alljhorn College secretion of the virus in turkeys in the secretion rate was less fortified by 99-99.99% of the excretion in the turkey was not married and in laboratory experiments)
2. Field results of immunization indicated that will help many control programs and control the disease and prevent its spread
3. Reduces or prevents the emergence of symptoms of infection
4. Reduces or prevents decline in egg production
5. Leads to a reduction of material loss to the poultry industry

Immunization is currently used in some States in herds exposed to infection (farms surrounding the infected farm, which lies outside the circle to which the infected farm status and 3 km radius and within the circle radius of 10 km around the infected farm).
Been vaccinated turkey flocks in the United States of America Balaatarp H1N1, especially in states that spread by pig-raising.
The preparation of vaccines suppressive immunization Alaatartin H7, H5 of strains highly pathogenic HPAI experiments are currently under study could be used in vaccination in endemic areas such as East Asia (China announced recently that it has succeeded in producing a vaccine strain of H5N1 and the use of already in the vaccination of poultry by) where it has become necessary to control the current epidemic of influenza.

Summarize:
1. Closed farms are less prone to infection than open fields and easier to take action to prevent common diseases.
2. Vital prevention measures should be carried out strictly in all types of poultry activity.
3. Serological examination of routine action is necessary to monitor any possible epidemics and officials from the speed to take appropriate measures to control the epidemic and control it and prevent its spread if it occurs.
4. In the case of epidemics in any country can be borne wild birds and migratory birds should follow up on these birds and testing Serological her routine to monitor the presence of antibodies to those diseases.
5. Immunization Balaatarat isolated from field cases necessary action on the farms surrounding the affected farm, which lies outside the region that are taking action to get rid of herds infected with highly pathogenic HPAI Balaatarat In all farms around the infected farm field Balaatarat medium intensity MPAI

Organizations recommended that the three global WHO, OIE & FAO these precautions in affected countries:
1. Testing on humans should be exposed to include the duck, as it is with the risk of infected poultry and dead.
2. Rights should take precautions as in the case of exposure to poultry infected with the apparently healthy ducks.
3. Education should not be allowed home for the ducks.
4. Sources of drinking man should be the water is not frequented by ducks and stored in a manner to prevent access to the ducks.
5. Equipped with well-cooked duck meat and duck eggs do not represent a risk to human
6. Exposure to the most dangerous to humans is during the home slaughtering and processing before cooking.

The organizations also pointed to the role played by ducks in the transmission cycle of H5N1 strain and that there is a great need to do research on the phenomenon of non-infection in ducks.
* Should be the FAO, OIE to develop long-term strategy to control the current strain
* Must be fundamental changes in poultry farming systems, particularly in rural areas
* The continuing investigation in animals is the key to control the infection and prevention of this investigation should be strengthened and intensified.

Should know that:
1. Trading a healthy poultry prevents or reduces the chance of transmission of influenza between the farmer and also for the human being and that of handling and eating poultry meat and eggs cooked does not transmit the disease.
2. The virus of avian influenza viruses and most can be eliminated easily by
* Washing hands with soap and water
* The use of disinfectants available homes and farms
* Use of materials such as acid anhydride used in homes for the work of the authorities and other destroys the virus
* The spraying a dilute solution of iodine 1 cm / L in the wards and around enough to eradicate the virus by imposing presence in the air.

Why is the bird flu risk to public health?
Disease is at present a specific threat geographically linked to direct contact with birds, but the property of these viruses in the formation of false patterns. Through mutation and the possibility of pigs and humans play the role of the mixing bowl and make a dent emergence of new patterns more dangerous than SARS.

With respect to the position of Arab Republic of Egypt from the disease, it has been taken the following actions:
First:
Issuance of ministerial decisions in this regard:
1. Ministerial Decree No. 1536 of the year 2004 the position of import of poultry and poultry products from Asia and countries affected by bird flu
2. Ministerial Decree No. 1327 for the year in 2005 to stop the importation of fodder origin poultry
3. Ministerial Decree No. 1326 of the year in 2005 stopping the importation of chicks and poultry from all countries of the world for 3 months and re-innovation in accordance with the position of the global epidemic
4. Ministerial Decree No. 1389 for the year in 2005 to prevent the import of birds and feathers Poultry waste used in the manufacture of fodder concentrates
5. Ministerial Decree No. 168 of 2005 permits the prohibition of hunting and a ban on hunting of birds and migratory Albraio of the Year 2005/2006
6. Decision of the Prime Minister to prevent hunting of migratory birds.

Second:
Hold training courses for veterinarians directorates for training on monitoring and surveillance and the role of migratory birds in the transmission of the disease and immediate actions to be taken in case of suspicion of the disease.

Third:
Preparation of a scientific bulletin on avian influenza for doctors and other simple bulletin on the disease to poultry farmers

Fourth:
Joint meetings with the responsible authorities such as the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Environment to determine the responsibilities and coordination between these actors.

Fifth:
Agreement with both:
* Food and Agriculture Organization for the accession of Egypt to the early warning countries of the Near East
* American project for the infrastructure to support Egypt's efforts in monitoring procedures, surveillance, prevention and control.

VI:
Convene a meeting of directors of directorates in the governorates of Veterinary Medicine to inform them of the current situation of the disease and the measures taken by the authority and role of the Directorate of Veterinary Medicine in the implementation of these procedures.

Seventh:
Limited to poultry farms and Arab Republic of Egypt is divided into:
* High-risk areas (15 counties)
* Medium-risk areas (8 provinces)
* Low-risk areas (4 provinces)
According to the population density of migratory birds to those provinces and to establish priorities for surveillance and control

Eighth:
Develop and implement a plan of survey Field and laboratory, with the formation of committees to collect samples from migratory birds in the governorates of coastal as well as poultry farms and note any symptoms may appear by The Commissions started their work as of 23/10/2005 and the results of examination of samples that have been withdrawn according to the non-existence of the disease in Egypt until the date of 02/17/2006.

IX:
A meeting between the Commission and representatives of the General Federation of Producers of poultry and poultry disease specialist teachers colleges of veterinary medicine and research institutes and the Institute for vaccine production where it was agreed the following recommendations:
1. Prevention of breeding birds on the roofs of houses, homes, barns and open around the homes of peasants, chickens and ducks roaming on the canals.
2. Hygienic disposal of the dead in a scientific manner by the concerned authorities through deep burial
3. Legislation (Ministerial Decree) to collect the amount of twenty pounds for each ton of maize or soybeans to be imported and placed in a special fund costs of the security program and biosecurity of poultry farms.
4. Legislation (Ministerial Decree) to compensate the affected farms and veterinary authorities have taken the decision to execute the poultry in the event of an outbreak of bird flu.
5. Legislation (Ministerial Decree) to prevent the transfer of live poultry between provinces and limited trading in poultry slaughtered only
6. The speed of the potential for a Research Institute of vaccine production to produce a vaccine against avian flu.
A. Was formed several specialized committees of the General Authority for Veterinary Services Authority poultry specialists, institutes and universities to determine the actions to be taken to prevent the disease from entering the country as well as actions required in the case of entry and recommended the following:
Determine how the reporting of the disease? And actions taken in case of suspicion of injury and reported to the departments of veterinary medicine in the governorates, as the alarm on the veterinary departments of all provinces need to quickly inform the General Authority for Veterinary Services in the case of suspicion of the presence of bird flu (sudden death more than 30% of the herd during the period of time 3 days + virtual symptoms of the disease + anatomical lesions which refers to the suspected presence of disease) in order to be able to take all measures necessary for the diagnosis and control and prevention in the case of God forbid occur (reported to district)
B. Formed a scientific committee of specialists poultry Authority, colleges and universities to determine the required samples and methods of screening and diagnosis in the case of suspicion of the presence of bird flu.
T.. Contact was the world reference laboratory for providing the Arab Republic of Egypt Balaatarat work necessary for a vaccine has been coordinated with the Research Institute of serums and vaccines Abbasia to speed processing in the case of vaccine needed to vaccinate poultry.
7. The General Authority for Veterinary Services (Directorate General of epidemics and diseases of poultry) to monitor the disease locally and internationally with some of the scientific centers (Research Unit of the U.S. Navy "example 3" in cooperation with the Ministry of Environment in migratory birds - National Laboratory for control of poultry in collaboration with the Academy of Scientific Research in domestic birds - Some veterinary colleges to universities and research centers on migratory birds and local) that collects samples from migratory birds and domestic birds and the work of the laboratory tests where the results of these tests proved the absence of highly pathogenic strain in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
8. Body (General Directorate for Epidemiology and Poultry Diseases) following the development of the spread of bird flu virus in all around the world to take the necessary measures to prevent entry into the country immediately, through international organizations, the three OIE, FAO, WHO and international information network and other means of publishing a daily basis.
9. The General Authority for Veterinary Services to the work program of finding a permanent avian flu in the Arab Republic of Egypt in conjunction with the National Laboratory for control of poultry to prevent the disease from entering the country by migratory birds or any other means tightly control the lessee on the ports so as to ensure the protection of livestock from pests and diseases Expat and non-diversion of the country with the speed to take the necessary measures to prevent the spread of the disease and control in case it occurs

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Higher Education
University of Northern Border
Faculty of Engineering

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عدد المساهمات : 133
تاريخ التسجيل : 12/04/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: البحث نجليزي عن إنفلونزا الطيور (plue الطيور) ، (طاعون الطيور =Search for Avian influenza (bird plue),(The plague of birds)   الإثنين ديسمبر 13, 2010 8:26 am

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البحث نجليزي عن إنفلونزا الطيور (plue الطيور) ، (طاعون الطيور =Search for Avian influenza (bird plue),(The plague of birds)
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