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 بحث بالغلة الانجليزية عن الملاريا=Malaria

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عدد المساهمات : 123
تاريخ التسجيل : 23/04/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: بحث بالغلة الانجليزية عن الملاريا=Malaria   الأربعاء أكتوبر 20, 2010 4:01 am

Password malarial origin the Latin word in Italian and bad air any reference to the proliferation of malarial mosquitoes in swamps and stagnant water,. The ancients believed that malaria is transmitted by air swamps. That is why the British call it the fever swamps and the Arabs call it malaria because they cause severe shivering. Since this disease from deadly diseases recommended that the World Health Organization travelers to affected areas using the proper medication immediately upon the sense of high temperature (during travel or later) to 38 degrees Celsius or when any symptoms of malaria without waiting for the diagnosis of a doctor. Malaria is spread by rights - without the rest of living organisms and is caused by a parasite transmitted by female mosquitoes killer type Onovils. Not eliminated malaria in many developing countries where it is causing a problem in the region warm and temperate world. There have been attempts to eradicate malaria globally, it failed to Baos resistance to pesticides and malaria parasites resistant to the drugs. Malaria is found in 100 countries. And 40% of the world's population are at risk. The World Health Organization reports that malaria spread in the continent of Africa and Central and South America and sub-continent, Hindi and the Middle East and some countries in Europe and South East Asia and Western Pacific Ocean, but 90% of infections are concentrated in Africa, especially western, central and east Africa and a female mosquito is the most capable Onovljes on the transfer of the parasite that causes malaria during absorption of human blood it needs to be able to lay eggs with a note that said mosquitoes to Aitagve on blood but on nectar and plant juices. There are 380 species of mosquito mosquitoes which about 60 species has the ability to transfer the parasite. Like all other types of mosquitoes live in water most of the stages the teeth. After the centenary of the discovery that mosquitoes transmit malaria parasites, scientists have discovered the genetic map for malaria and the mosquito that transmits the disease. This leads to the discovery of new ways to address malaria infection which affects a large number of patients in the world. With increased resistance to disease, parasites, drugs, anti-mosquito and pesticide used against him. There are hopes in the prevention of malaria transmission to humans, especially as the child dies every 40 seconds. Hbut killing of 2-1 million people annually, according to estimates by the World Health Organization. Which threatens 40% of the world's population infected with malaria each year 300 - 500 million people. Because it is endemic in more than 100 countries, 90% of them living behind-Saharan Africa and the southern part of the African continent. Most of the deaths from malaria is found in children because their immune systems and pregnant women has not been completed because their immune system is compromised during pregnancy, especially if the pregnancy is the first time. And some people have a genetic immunity to self-resistant malaria parasite and prevent the growth and reproduction of their bodies. Malaria is caused by parasites of protozoa belonging to the genus Plasmodium, carried by certain types of insect mosquitoes. In order to be parasites life cycle must introduce objects mosquitoes and humans. There are no vaccines and protective of this parasite. Vary the degree of infection from one season to another and higher rate is in the rainy seasons due to the spread of the abundance of mosquitoes. The existence of pools of water. And infested with mosquitoes that transmit malaria in the warm humid climate stability and lead to the spread of the disease for a long period may extend throughout the year. The aim of current research to create genetically modified mosquitoes "anti-malarial" and unable to carry the parasite that causes the disease. There are attempts to make scientific genetic modification and the mosquito vectors of disease as the parasite is not allowed to stay in the insect gut, and then release these breeds genetically modified to move them as such to the crossbreds.






Transmission

Malaria is transmitted by female mosquitoes of the genus Plasmodium which carries Alonovil (parasites, protozoa) that causes the disease .. and with the life cycle of the parasite in several developmental stages in humans and mosquitoes that spread from one person to have malaria infection through the bites of infective female type Onovils usually a person with It absorbs malaria parasite from the blood of infected humans and must for this parasite to mature in the gut of the mosquito for a week or more to be able to infect a healthy person then moves to the salivary glands of mosquitoes, called this stage name Sporoset When this mosquito bites healthy people, the parasite moves to human blood every time absorb the blood. Parasite migrates directly to the liver and enter the cells and grow them Mtcathera During this period of the parasite that resides within the liver had few rights symptoms of the disease. After a period ranging from 8 days to several months is passed from the liver to enter red blood cells which grow and reproduce inside them, then explode the balls to come out with large numbers of blood cells attack the parasite in and out of the new balls are also toxins that lead to a sense of the disease in this period if able mosquito bites the infected person, it absorbs the parasite from the blood to remain in his body for a week or more then be able to transmit the disease to another person. It absorbs blood to infect healthy people sick by airing their saliva after biting his skin. And saliva by Ispiroozredat living in the salivary glands of mosquitoes. And moving through the blood to the liver where the injured person is divided in Sberzedat Almirosedat to thousands of cells that flow into the bloodstream to attack the red cells are divided guardian and swelling and break and Itkaather parasite inside red blood cells that break through the 48 to 72 hours to infect Kyia new red blood body? The first symptoms occur 10 days - 4 weeks after infection. The Herad occur in cycles every 48 to 72 hours. And spoke Aloawld Almirozoitat the start of the course of the blood and not caused by the cracker Nehemiah Aadm red cells and blood Aandalaq Aljimocalobin .. This is why someone feels the fever broke out as a result of the swollen cells secrete toxins and wastes in the blood and immune system resistance to impact. And symptoms appear within ten days to four weeks after infection, although the sense of the disease occurs after 5-8 days of this period may be up to one year. And cause malaria infection by one or more of four types of parasites of the genus Plasmodium and these four types are:

P. ovale
Plasmodium falciparum
P. vivax
Perceived Alopalep
The disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum as the most serious symptoms of severe illness due to the short life cycle which is responsible for most cases of death from malaria. It is the most widespread and more cases of death caused by the injury. . The patient and re-chills and excessive sweat every 48 hours and by type of parasite, so-called intermittent fever of malaria. And the patient suffers from anemia as a result of broken red blood cells in his body and feel tired after each shift and bellows. And occurs in most cases, remain latent phase of hepatitis symptoms of the disease may be repeated from time to time may remain the parasite in the body throughout the life of the patient despite taking the treatment. . And can get rid of the parasite stage patients inherent in the liver. Through the therapeutic depends on the type of malaria and experience of the doctor.








Symptoms of the disease

The Intifada and chills and fever, sweat, headaches, nausea, vomiting, muscle pain and bloody stools and jaundice, convulsions, E_me Electronics. Rise in temperature accompanied by chills and had copious sweat and headaches. And malaria-like symptoms occur to a great extent symptoms of other diseases, especially colds and flu, but if you doubt your injury malaria do not hesitate to take the treatment in the case without waiting for your visit to the specialist physician. It is noted that the types of malaria occur very serious symptoms such as coma, very satisfactory, especially in the case of cerebral malaria and anemia also occur the common intestinal renal failure, shortness of breath. And you have to resort to the competent hospital if it appears you have symptoms of malaria, even if after a period of 3 months or even a full year from the date of your return from the region by the spread of the disease. And usually had few symptoms of the disease longer a traveler returning from travel. We must call a doctor first, that it was traveling to a region plagued by malaria.

And Malaria causes anemia and yellowing of the skin color as a result of the erosion of red blood cells have Taattoroarad disease rapidly in people with weakened immune systems of a dangerous rise with temperature and damage the sensory system and repeated convulsions accompanied by coma and then end up in the case of death caused by malaria parasite falciparum P. If not treated quickly, the patient may cause for kidney failure, convulsions and confusion in memory, thinking, and coma and eventually death. May reach the brain of malaria-infected blood cells operate Balotfil and decomposing on the blockage of blood vessels and this is called cerebral malaria. The symptoms of malaria usually in the high body temperature to about 38 Drjpm short-term symptoms and repeated every 48 hours if the condition of the injured were in good health and similar symptoms with the symptoms of influenza accompanied by chills, chills, headache, pain in the muscles and constant stress and severe nausea, vomiting, mild diarrhea and severe pain in the digestive system and symptoms of gastric ulcers and convulsions, coma may end the death of the injured. Symptoms appear within a week for several months from the date of mosquito bites. Certainly, the neglect of special treatment of malaria caused by P. Type falciparum may lead to death. It is not surprising that more than 2% of people die because of delayed treatment. Gissabon hepatic and renal failure and breaking of red blood cells, meningitis and rupture of the spleen and bleeding recurrent


Medicines for Malaria

Dealing with malaria drugs close in the growth cycle the parasite does not harm the patient and the injured, and some medications interfere with the Anlip metabolism of the parasite itself Kalknyn (quinine) and some Mstvath prevent him from breeding within the cells of the blood. And can be described as anti-malarial drugs before entering the area infested Estmrtaati two weeks, and months after leaving medicine. Submission recommends that sense for South America, Africa and the subcontinent, Hindi, Asia and the South Pacific Ptnolun medication of these drugs, mefloquine, doxycycline, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, or Malarone. And medicine, the drug talk Malarone against malaria, a component of the drug, atovaquone and proguanil. Usually used chlorofluorocarbons sulfadoxine pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine and there are drug mefloquine (Mefloquine) is one of Mstvat quinine is still effective, but its impact is for developing countries, expensive medicine., Scholars of the European laboratory of biological molecules are trying to prevent malaria transmission to humans after an amendment to the mosquito's immune system. Malaria is a complex interaction between humans and mosquitoes and the parasite, which is developing .. this scientists breeding genetically modified mosquitoes for release in the affected areas with mosquito to spread their genes modified. To become a mosquito is not adding to the disease. And possible control of malaria illness Asian countries through modern medicine available and effective therapeutic drugs, in particular derivatives (Artemisinin). . Malaria is curable if diagnosed and treated early, it also depends also on the type of anti-malarial drugs Antimalarial Drugs used and their susceptibility to the parasite and the duration of treatment depends on the patient's age and the number of infection and the number of times where the symptoms were repeated before the start of treatment. In endemic areas with repeated infection occurs partial immunity of the human person, while the children remain susceptible to infection and that pregnant women are more susceptible to infection because of its low ability to resist during pregnancy. There are many medications used to treat malaria and competent physician determines the appropriate type of each case and taking into account the type of malaria and the region came from the patient and the degree of parasite resistance to combination chemotherapy used. Is to make sure the work of the type of malaria thin film of blood and can easily determine the type concerned.


Prevention

Beware of mosquito bites by Aartdae long dresses and cover most parts of the body and the use of repellent for mosquitoes and insects different types of detonators • sleep under protective nets (bed nets) Bed net in the case of living in rooms without air-conditioned or contain any windows installed with wires and protective of insects. And soak in the mosquito net bed Bermitherin Permethrin insecticide to prevent mosquitoes from approaching him. . Periodic spraying of banks and ponds with pesticides or kerosene to kill mosquito larvae. . Kalplati fish and other fish and frogs to gobble up mosquito larvae in stagnant water. • Can use a mixture of lemon oil and eucalyptus oil, citronella, or to paint the exposed areas of the body. • Use of paints and Sbray insect repellent on clothing and open spaces of the body before going out to these areas. • Not walk on the green areas after dark. • Fumes to expel mosquitoes from home gardens, there is the chimney of the screws can be used outdoors. The contestants are heating electric heater for Tboukeroaqras pesticide plant compounds, most notably plant Alberther m. To repel mosquitoes from the indoor. • Use fuses of insects or heat lamps to a repellent to mosquitoes in public places, shops and clubs. Avoid the use of dark-colored clothing as it attracts mosquitoes. Take your anti-malarial drugs for the prevention of infection in the human exposure to mosquito bites but the emergence of strains of malaria resistant to drugs used makes the problem more complicated. Research is under way to try to obtain antisera and combinations of new drugs to overcome the problem of resistant strains that appear from time to time, but it will not be available before the passage of years.

Avoid the use of perfumes and creams, aftershaves as they attract mosquitoes. • Cover the arms, especially in the evening, it is common to mosquitoes attacking the football. Avoid get out into the open areas after sunset and until the dawn had to be The means of prevention is necessary. Female mosquitoes feed on human blood and can not produce eggs and ripening only after absorption of blood, the protection of humans from mosquito bites contribute greatly to the reduction of a population, and it becomes necessary to living in rooms protected by wire mesh anti-insects. The lack of exposure to mosquito bites, even for Aeetmkn of the egg-laying when the blood available Egged fun. The disease is transmitted from the blood of infected persons through the transfer of blood. Or from an infected mother to the fetus before or during birth or through the use of contaminated syringes. And finally ... To eradicate malaria, we must spend on humans or mosquitoes or both, or by changing the genetic traits of resistance to each of the malaria parasite genes instance, we need to make mosquitoes resistant to malaria infection, and to find genes involved in the process of growth of the malaria parasite in the belly of the mosquito stomach. . And so as not to parasite life cycle must not enter bodies of mosquitoes Ooalepeshr. And some scientists believe that it will not be a vaccine against the disease twenty years ago. The process of decoding maps Aljinnitin six years as a full understanding of the structure of the genome of this disease and genetic map of the mosquito carriers of manufacturing will lead to effective drugs for treatment and finding new ways to combat it. And knowledge of genome may help researchers to identify genes within the body of the insect responsible for hosting parasites. Has been amended mosquitoes genetically engineered to prevent the transfer of Otfiiaat malaria. .. And currently does not have a vaccine or anti-malaria drugs to the different nature of the parasite from other diseases because diseases such as viruses Oualbktrella production of a vaccine against malaria is a complex process and there are research projects, but there are no indicators of the production of a vaccine against it during the past several years to come . dwellers believe that their country was affected areas free of the disease because of partial immunity. But strangers not to get sick and HIV



















Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Higher Education
University of Northern Border
Faculty of Engineering
EA










Search for Malaria











The supervision of Professor/
Hamid Mohammad Omar Fayed
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ابو فهد الطرفاوي



عدد المساهمات : 133
تاريخ التسجيل : 12/04/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: بحث بالغلة الانجليزية عن الملاريا=Malaria   الأربعاء أكتوبر 27, 2010 8:35 am

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بحث بالغلة الانجليزية عن الملاريا=Malaria
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